This topic shows how to create a custom security token using the SecurityToken class, and how to integrate it with a custom security token provider and authenticator. For a complete code example see the Custom Token sample.
A security token is essentially an XML element that is used by the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) security framework to represent claims about a sender inside the SOAP message. WCF security provides various tokens for system-provided authentication modes. Examples include an X.509 certificate security token represented by the X509SecurityToken class or a Username security token represented by the UserNameSecurityToken class.
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Sometimes an authentication mode or credential is not supported by the provided types. In that case, it is necessary to create a custom security token to provide an XML representation of the custom credential inside the SOAP message.
The following procedures show how to create a custom security token and how to integrate it with the WCF security infrastructure. This topic creates a credit card token that is used to pass information about the client's credit card to the server.
For more information about custom credentials and security token manager, see Walkthrough: Creating Custom Client and Service Credentials.
See the System.IdentityModel.Tokens namespace for more classes that represent security tokens.
A client application must be provided with a way to specify credit card information for the security infrastructure. This information is made available to the application by a custom client credentials class. The first step is to create a class to represent the credit card information for custom client credentials.
To create a class that represents credit card information inside client credentials
Define a new class that represents the credit card information for the application. The following example names the class
Add appropriate properties to the class to allow an application set the necessary information required for the custom token. In this example, the class has three properties:
Next, a class that represents the custom security token must be created. This class is used by the security token provider, authenticator, and serializer classes to pass information about the security token to and from the WCF security infrastructure.
To create a custom security token class
Define a new class derived from the SecurityToken class. This example creates a class named
Override the Id property. This property is used to get the local identifier of the security token that is used to point to the security token XML representation from other elements inside the SOAP message. In this example, a token identifier can be either passed to it as a constructor parameter or a new random one is generated every time a security token instance is created.
Implement the SecurityKeys property. This property returns a collection of security keys that the security token instance represents. Such keys can be used by WCF to sign or encrypt parts of the SOAP message. In this example, the credit card security token cannot contain any security keys; therefore, the implementation always returns an empty collection.
Override the ValidFrom and ValidTo properties. These properties are used by WCF to determine the validity of the security token instance. In this example, the credit card security token has only an expiration date, so the
ValidFromproperty returns a DateTime that represents the date and time of the instance creation.
When a new security token type is created, it requires an implementation of the SecurityTokenParameters class. The implementation is used in the security binding element configuration to represent the new token type. The security token parameters class serves as a template that is used to match the actual security token instance to when a message is processed. The template provides additional properties that an application can use to specify criteria that the security token must match to be used or authenticated. The following example does not add any additional properties, so only the security token type is matched when the WCF infrastructure searches for a security token instance to use or to validate.
To create a custom security token parameters class
Define a new class derived from the SecurityTokenParameters class.
Implement the CloneCore method. Copy all internal fields defined in your class, if any. This example does not define any additional fields.
Implement the SupportsClientAuthentication read-only property. This property returns
trueif the security token type represented by this class can be used to authenticate a client to a service. In this example, the credit card security token can be used to authenticate a client to a service.
Implement the SupportsServerAuthentication read-only property. This property returns
trueif the security token type represented by this class can be used to authenticate a service to a client. In this example, the credit card security token cannot be used to authenticate a service to a client.
Implement the SupportsClientWindowsIdentity read-only property. This property returns
trueif the security token type represented by this class can be mapped to a Windows account. If so, the authentication result is represented by a WindowsIdentity class instance. In this example, the token cannot be mapped to a Windows account.
Implement the CreateKeyIdentifierClause(SecurityToken, SecurityTokenReferenceStyle) method. This method is called by WCF security framework when it requires a reference to the security token instance represented by this security token parameters class. Both the actual security token instance and SecurityTokenReferenceStyle that specifies the type of the reference that is being requested are passed to this method as arguments. In this example, only internal references are supported by the credit card security token. The SecurityToken class has functionality to create internal references; therefore, the implementation does not require additional code.
Implement the InitializeSecurityTokenRequirement(SecurityTokenRequirement) method. This method is called by WCF to convert the security token parameters class instance into an instance of the SecurityTokenRequirement class. The result is used by security token providers to create the appropriate security token instance.
Security tokens are transmitted inside SOAP messages, which requires a translation mechanism between the in-memory security token representation and the on-the-wire representation. WCF uses a security token serializer to accomplish this task. Every custom token must be accompanied by a custom security token serializer that can serialize and deserialize the custom security token from the SOAP message.
Derived keys are enabled by default. If you create a custom security token and use it as the primary token, WCF derives a key from it. While doing so, it calls the custom security token serializer to write the SecurityKeyIdentifierClause for the custom security token while serializing the
DerivedKeyToken to the wire. On the receiving end, when deserializing the token off the wire, the
DerivedKeyToken serializer expects a
SecurityTokenReference element as the top-level child under itself. If the custom security token serializer did not add a
SecurityTokenReference element while serializing its clause type, an exception is thrown.
To create a custom security token serializer
Define a new class derived from the WSSecurityTokenSerializer class.
Override the CanReadTokenCore(XmlReader) method, which relies on an XmlReader to read the XML stream. The method returns
trueif the serializer implementation can deserialize the security token based given its current element. In this example, this method checks whether the XML reader's current XML element has the correct element name and namespace. If it does not, it calls the base class implementation of this method to handle the XML element.
Override the ReadTokenCore(XmlReader, SecurityTokenResolver) method. This method reads the XML content of the security token and constructs the appropriate in-memory representation for it. If it does not recognize the XML element on which the passed-in XML reader is standing, it calls the base class implementation to process the system-provided token types.
Override the CanWriteTokenCore(SecurityToken) method. This method returns
trueif it can convert the in-memory token representation (passed in as an argument) to the XML representation. If it cannot convert, it calls the base class implementation.
Override the WriteTokenCore(XmlWriter, SecurityToken) method. This method converts an in-memory security token representation into an XML representation. If the method cannot convert, it calls the base class implementation.
After completing the four previous procedures, integrate the custom security token with the security token provider, authenticator, manager, and client and service credentials.
To integrate the custom security token with a security token provider
The security token provider creates, modifies (if necessary), and returns an instance of the token. To create a custom provider for the custom security token, create a class that inherits from the SecurityTokenProvider class. The following example overrides the GetTokenCore method to return an instance of the
CreditCardToken. For more information about custom security token providers, see How to: Create a Custom Security Token Provider.
To integrate the custom security token with a security token authenticator
The security token authenticator validates the content of the security token when it is extracted from the message. To create a custom authenticator for the custom security token, create a class that inherits from the SecurityTokenAuthenticator class. The following example overrides the ValidateTokenCore method. For more information about custom security token authenticators, see How to: Create a Custom Security Token Authenticator.
To integrate the custom security token with a security token manager
The security token manager creates the appropriate token provider, security authenticator, and token serializer instances. To create a custom token manager, create a class that inherits from the ClientCredentialsSecurityTokenManager class. The primary methods of the class use a SecurityTokenRequirement to create the appropriate provider and client or service credentials. For more information about custom security token managers, see Walkthrough: Creating Custom Client and Service Credentials.
To integrate the custom security token with custom client and service credentials
The custom client and service credentials must be added to provide an API for the application to allow specifying custom token information that is used by the custom security token infrastructure created previously to provide and authenticate the custom security token content. The following samples show how this can be done. For more information about custom client and service credentials, see Walkthrough: Creating Custom Client and Service Credentials.
The custom security token parameters class created previously is used to tell the WCF security framework that a custom security token must be used when communicating with a service. The following procedure shows how this can be done.
To integrate the custom security token with the binding
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The custom security token parameters class must be specified in one of the token parameters collections that are exposed on the SecurityBindingElement class. The following example uses the collection returned by
SignedEncrypted. The code adds the credit card custom token to every message sent from the client to the service with its content automatically signed and encrypted.
This topic shows the various pieces of code necessary to implement and use a custom token. To see a complete example of how all these pieces of code fit together see, Custom Token.
New slot machine players are going to find a lot of advice for beating the slots. Have a healthy skepticism when a slots expert tells you they know how to beat the slot machines. Among the games in a casino, video slots (in general) have a high house edge. Besides finding gaming machines with high jackpots and a low house edge, no skill or strategy is required to play slots. That means you can’t expect to increase your odds of winning in most situations.
Read through the advice below to optimize your chances of winning at slots. None of the advice assures winning sessions. Instead, it helps you stretch your bankroll, so you enjoy playing the slots longer. Also, the longer your bankroll lasts, the more chances you’ll have of hitting the big jackpot every slots player wants.
Use a Slots Card
Upon entering a live casino, sign up for a slots card. This provides comps and cashback, which automatically lowers the house edge by a bit. Never play a spin without using your slots card. In an online casino, accept the highest slots bonus and play according to the terms and conditions until you meet the wagering requirement. Once again, this lowers the house edge on online slots.
Make Max Bets
Look at the payout chart on a slot machine to determine how jackpots are paid. On many slot machines, the 5-coin bet pays out a higher percentage on the top fixed jackpot. For instance, a 1-coin bet might pay $200, a 2-coin bet might pay $400, a 3-coin bet might pay $600, and a 4-coin bet might pay $800. You might expect the 5-coin bet to pay $1000, but many slot machines pay out $1200 or $1500 in that case, trying to convince bettors to make the max bet.
If the jackpot increases a bigger percentage with a maximum coin wager, then it makes sense to make the max bet on a slot machine. If the bet size is too high for your tastes, then lower the coin denomination and make a max bet at that level. Of course, if there is no additional jump between the 4-coin and 5-coin bet, then you can wager a single coin and max out the coin denomination to the bet size you like.
Read the RTP Information
If an online casino or land-based casino publishes its return-to-player information, read through the RTP percentages to find the video slots with the best RTPs. Return-to-player or expected return is the percentage of a theoretical $100 you expect to see returned to you. It is a theoretical percentage based on probability, so an RTP of 95% does not assure you’ll be paid $95 for every $100 you put in the machine. You might lose $50 or you might win $150, or you might win a progressive jackpot and go home rich.
The point of the RTP percentage is to give a player an idea of their expected return. If two slot machines sit next to one another and one has an RTP of 93% and the other an RTP of 95% (and both have similar jackpots), then it pays to play the game with the higher percentage. Over time, this leads to you maintaining a higher percentage of your bankroll.
Money Management Techniques
Read about bankroll management techniques. “Money management” or “bankroll management” is a series of steps you take to lock on winnings when good luck happens and limit your losses when a bad streak occurs. These do not assure that you’ll win, but it optimizes your bankroll.
Players should know three core bankroll management methods: percentage betting, win goals, and loss limits. Learn to calculate your bankroll and divide this into percentages. Then bet between 1% and 5% of your bankroll on any given hand, depending on your capacity for risk. This limits the amount of your stake you lose on any given session, keeping you playing for longer throughout your vacation. It is a given that people go to the ATM machine or credit card when they lose their whole bankroll — which means you spend more than you intended. The point of percentage betting is to assure your bankroll last through your whole trip, so you never have to replenish.
What Is a Bankroll?
“Bankroll” is not defined as your entire bank account. It isn’t defined as your discretionary spending budget or the money you have earmarked for entertainment expenses. Instead, it is a part of your discretionary spending cash and entertainment budget which is set aside specifically for gambling. In this case, a bankroll is less than your entertainment budget.
Once you have your bankroll figured, divide this into easy to understand percentage. If you have a bankroll of $1000, then divide this into percentages. These are simple calculations, but you should have an understanding of 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of your bankroll. In the earlier example, 1% would be $10, while 2% would be $20. 5% would be $50, 10% would be $100, and 20% would be $200.
Online poker ipad app real money. Now that you have these, decide whether to bet 1% to 5% of your bankroll. Most experts suggest betting no more than 1% to 2% in order to maintain your bankroll throughout your casino trip or online slots session.
Setting a Win Goal
Next, set your win goal. This is the amount of winnings you set as your goal for any given slots session. If you have a win goal of 10%, then your win goal would be $100 for any given slot machine sessions. As soon as you hit that goal, you walk away from the slot machine — no matter what. A win goal is a hard-and-fast rule, because it locks in winnings. One of the biggest mistakes players make is losing back their winnings, because they think they’re on a hot streak.
Setting a Loss Limit
Even more dangerous is trying to win back cash you just loss. To protect against this tendency, set a loss limit. Once again, make this your hard-and-fast rule. Typical loss limits can be 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% — though 20% means you could lose the entire bankroll in 5 slots session. 10% to 15% is a good middle ground. Once you’ve lost that amount, walk away from the slot machine under all circumstances. The slots game is not “due” to pay out, so step away from the machine and clear your mind.
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Win goals and loss limits guard against gambler’s fallacy. Gambler’s fallacy is the idea that the law of averages assures or weight the odds in your favor. Slots use random number generators and every spin is entirely separate from the previous spin. Losing the last spin does not make it more likely you’ll win the next spin. The odds stay the same, no matter how many wins or losses in a row you’ve had.
Avoid Progressive Betting
For that reason, avoid progressive betting systems like the Martingale system, D’Alembert system, Fibonacci system, and so on. Betting experts have used computer simulations to track the progressive betting methods against flat betting (same bet each spin). Flat betting beats all of the progressive betting schemes over 1 billion spins.
Progressive betting seems like it’s working, because it leads to a lot of small winning sessions. The problem is that it also has a handful of huge losing sessions which wipe out all the wins — and then some. You can’t beat the house edge with the Martingale system, however it might look to the naked eye. The Fibonacci numbers are incredible, but they are not a magical way to beat the casino.
The reason progressive bets are bad is they increase the size of your bets (in some systems exponentially). If you start with $5 or $10 bets, a streak of bad luck has you betting hundreds of dollars on one spin. That’s busts your bankroll and leads to a “risk of ruin” — meaning you’ll lose your whole bankroll if you hit a bad luck streak. No matter what you read online, flat bets are better.
Take Breaks for Rest and Refreshments
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Play when you are at your best physically and mentally. Don’t play when you’re tired or sleepy. Don’t play when you’re hungry or thirsty. Take frequent rest and restroom breaks. If you get bored, take a break and walk the casino. Play another game to change up the betting pattern.
When you are rested and engaged, you won’t have distractions that might lead to bad decisions. The idea is to have fun, so if anything is causing you to lose focus on the entertainment aspect of the game, walk away and save your bankroll.
Don’t Go on Tilt
Tilt is a concept in poker where a player makes decisions based on emotional responses instead of solid strategy. It can cost a player a lot of money if they make bets based on anything but rational decisions. While going on tilt is not a concept in slot machine gambling, every game of chance has a personal component.
In short, don’t play when you’re agitated. Take stock of your inner thoughts. If your ego or anger is causing you to make irrational decisions, take a deep breath and calm down. If that doesn’t work, walk away and clear your head. It stinks to lose a series of bets, but what stinks more is to lose a series of bigger bets when you’re trying to make up for lost bankroll.
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